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Malama ‘Aina

Essay 2011. 8. 3. 20:54
Name: Jung, Seowon
Class:  HWST107-WI
Instructor: Luukia Archer
Date: 7/29/2008

          Nowadays, a lot of islands in unknown places have been modernized and the Western culture has affected back stump places such as Africa, Micronesia for a couple of hundreds years. However, nevertheless, a lot of Africans, islanders have still lived same savage life style until now. Moreover, the satisfaction rate of their life has been decreased more and more than before. Has the western culture system been something wrong? Otherwise, have they refused to accept the western culture? Of course, they were already ready to accept the western culture, but the most important thing for them should be nature and people must have not known this.

 Hawaii’s history is as sad as Korea’s it, because, as we know, Hawaii was incorporated into U.S forced. According to Hawaiian Independence, “One meaning of "sovereignty" is control over land and natural resources: the land, the water in the land, the ocean (including a 200 mile Exclusive Economic Zone) and the air we breathe. We know well that the indigenous approach to "managing" these "resources" is fundamentally different from the Western colonial approach, emphasizing balance, reciprocity and sustainability versus domination, exploitation and exhaustion. (2008)” People who had lived in Hawaii were native Hawaiians but, their governors were from U.S that native Hawaiian wouldn’t have wanted them to be in Hawaii in order to govern Hawaiian. The governors from U.S would cut down the trees and build a couple of factories where native Hawaiian had lived in. However, Hawaii is only one dynasty of the U.S and governors should think that they needed to protect Hawaii’s language, nature, and environmental unique culture. Nevertheless, some of native Hawaiian has asserted an independence of Hawaii. I guess that native Hawaiian thinks U.S government has destroyed nature and environment of Hawaii but Hawaii is the most famous and beautiful place in the world, as we know. Hawaii has a major role to play as an international trading port and financial center, and will certainly participate actively in the global economy (Hawaiian Independence, 2008). Hawaii is estimated as the best city of the nature and city are combined well each other in the U.S. According to Hawaii’s island of adventure, “The natural environment is Hawaii Island’s greatest asset for visitors and residents alike (2008)”.

          However, native Hawaiians seem to be unsatisfied regarding that Hawaii is the most famous and has a major role in the world. Because, they are worrying about unique environments of Hawaii. Besides that people destroy the nature, Hawaii has continually been affected and shaped by species of plants and animals that are imported (Subashini, 2008). If so, what will the imported animals and plants give effects on environment of Hawaii? Of course, the native animals might lose their own territorial’s from imported. However, the most important thing is that people need more land to build the house, building and store; and they have constructed them regardless of native Hawaiian’s advice and wish.

          As I mentioned, Hawaii is the best city that is combined both nature and city well. Hawaii’s nature problems could be the native animals’ problem and even native Hawaiian people, too.  However, try as they may, they can’t solve it because, many people who are living in Hawaii want them to see great building, house, and shopping center. Moreover, because of the budget Hawaii state government depends on tourist revenues, and the opinion from native Hawaiian that they want to protect Hawaii’s land could be ignored.

          In conclusion, native Hawaiians want to protect the nature, land, and environment of Hawaii; and people want to develop this city, island, and state as a fiftieth in the U.S to get more tourists and make more money. Even if the Malama ‘Aina is an event regarding “Apology resolution”, many native Hawaiians look that they are worrying about their nature, land, and environment more than trouble about land. In this point, the U.S government need to concern about Hawaii’s unique environment, protecting nature, and their land more than before; and, they need to solve the problem about the land that they compensated damage from forced incorporation for native Hawaiians.




Work cited:
Subashini Ganesan, The Silent Invasion. July 17 2008, Maui Weekly,
          < http://www.mauiweekly.com/Malama%20Aina/story7246.aspx>
Hawaiian Independence, Hawaiian Independence and a Sustainable Future, July 28 2008,
          <http://www.hawaii-nation.org/malamaaina.html>
Hawaii’s island of adventure, July 28 2008,
          < http://www.bigisland.org/activities-land/251/malama-aina-care-for-the-land>


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Kamehameha School

Essay 2011. 8. 3. 20:52
Name: Jung, Seowon
Class: HWST107-WI
Instructor: Luukia Archer
Date: 8/14/2008

Every U.S citizens have the right to be educated without any charge and discriminations. The government would budget to educate them at primary, middle and high school. Indeed, some parents want their children to be educated by better environment, school, and teachers; so, they would send them to the private school that the tuition is very expensive. A few days ago, one private school in Hawaii has been a major issue again that four non-Hawaiian students are suing Kamehamaha School for reason of racial discrimination after they were denied admission. (KITV, 2008)

Kamehameha School is one of the most excellent schools in Hawaii that everything is free for the students who are qualified as native Hawaiian including royal families that the students must be 25% or more blood quantum. Therefore, every native Hawaiian including who has been living with difficulty more than before, can be educated high standard compared with other public schools. In other viewpoint, the royal families of the Hawaiian Kingdom are victims as an overthrown of the Hawaiian Kingdom by invasion and exploitation from the western culture. Therefore, the ancestors of the royal families of Hawaiian Kingdom thought that their descendants needed to be educated in high standard; and In 1883, Bernice Pauahi Bishop directed that the remainder of her estate, inherited through her cousin Princess Ruth Keelikolani, be held in trust “to erect and maintain in the Hawaiian Islands two schools... one for boys and one girls, to be known as and called the Kamehameha Schools.” She directed her five trustees to invest her estate at their discretion and use the annual income to operate the schools, and also to devote a portion of each years income to the support and education of orphans, and others in indigent circumstances, giving the preference to Hawaiians of pure or part aboriginal blood. (Kamehameha School, 2008). This school is absolutely operated by individual property for native Hawaiian; and non-native Hawaiian is not eligible to enter this school.

Nevertheless, the reason of suing by four non-native Hawaiian students was that the prohibited enrollment of the non-native Hawaiian was wrong for equal opportunity to an education and racial discrimination. In the past, a lot of poor people could not go to school because they did not have money. These days, however, nobody says that they can't go to school because they don't have money. That's why the government has supported education of the citizen until high school. Of course, the four students are not from low-income families, and they just want to go to the school that has better environment to study. However, Kamehameha School is for native Hawaiian, not public school. Maybe, this might be planned lawsuit to make a lot of money. Because, according to KITV, “It was more than a year ago the estate settled a similar lawsuit over its admissions policy which gives preference to Native Hawaiians. The school paid out a reported $7 million (KITV, 2008)”. Indeed, his problem was complicated because, his mother had been adopted by a Hawaiian family, therefore, his mother said his son was Hawaiian. (Rick Daysog, 2003)

My view on this issue is that I agree to the policy of Kamehameha School because, the policy that admission is allowed only native Hawaiian is kind of compensation of national self-respect and pride as native Hawaiian. Maybe, the U.S government might rather have to maintain the unique characteristics of Hawaii than native Hawaiian. Therefore, native Hawaiian needs to educate their descendants to know who they are, where they are from, and what they are going to do.

However, the exclusive policy could make people to split into petty factions. Moreover, the policy could make inharmonic relationships between native Hawaiian and non-native Hawaiian. Eventually, non-native Hawaiian could probably discriminate native Hawaiian in public service. Kamehameha School paid $7 million dollars and they might have satisfied that they could keep the policy but someday they will have to solve this problem. Therefore, they have to make a settlement again in someday without discrimination, money, and, lawsuit; and I suggest three solutions. First is, Kamehameha School had better establish an exceptive clause on the policy for non-native Hawaiian who has the potential to become like leaders in their respective communities and also Hawaii. Of course, Kamehameha School is going to break their tradition but, they could make a great contribution for people between Hawaiian and non-native Hawaiian. Second is operating another school for non-native Hawaiian. Even though Kamehameha School is for native-Hawaiian, the reason of many students want to enroll this school is that this school provides better environment than other public school, even private schools; and everything for their students without any charging as I know. Last one is to register such as a special school in Hawaii government in order to inherit that Kamehameha School needs to teach unique Hawaiian culture, language, and spirit to their students. Therefore, Kamehameha School will have different purpose from other schools. Finally, I strongly believe that between Kamehameha School students and non-native Hawaiian people will be living together in harmony.




Work cited:
Kamehameha School. “Questions and Answers about KS Admissions Policies”,
Aug 6 2008, Honolulu HI,
<http://www.ksbe.edu/admissions/QandA.php>
Rick Daysog. “School lets non-hawaiian stay”, Honolulu Star-Bulletin Hawaii
News, Dec 2, 2003.
<http://starbulletin.com/2003/11/29/news/story3.html>
KITV. “Kamehameha School Faces Another Lawsuit”, Aug 6, 2008.
<http://www.kitv.com/news/17117806/detail.html?subid=10101241>


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Language and Culture

Essay 2011. 8. 3. 20:51
Name: Jung, Seowon
Class: HWST107-WI
Instructor: Luukia Archer
Date: 8/2/2008 

Language is an ability to create and using language is the most distinctive feature of humans. Each language holds a history and culture, giving identity and roots. Yet, worldwide, 4 languages die every two months. Of the 6,000 languages known, only 3,000 will be left by the end of the 21st century. Even though there is a lot of language in this universe, nobody knows the origin of language. Of course we couldn’t live without language, but what we know is that the language was from the event of the Babel Tower. Many linguists have studied its origin and how it was made. Many animal and even plant species communicate with each other. Humans are not unique in this capability.  However, human language is unique in being a symbolic communication system that is learned instead of biologically inherited. However, the most important thing is language and speech are not the same thing and language and speech have affected our culture, life and development of technologies.
 
Common culture and common language facilitate trade between individuals. Individuals have incentives to learn the other languages and cultures so that they have a larger pool of potential trading partners. The value of assimilation is larger to an individual from a small minority than to one from a large minority group. When a society has a very large majority of individuals from one culture, individuals from minority groups will be assimilated more quickly. Assimilation is less likely when an immigrant's native culture and language are broadly represented in his or her new country. Also, when governments protect minority interests directly, incentives to be assimilated into the majority culture are reduced. In a pluralistic society, a government policy that encourages diverse cultural immigration over concentrated immigration is likely to increase the welfare of the native population. Sometimes, policies that subsidize assimilation and the acquisition of majority language skills can be socially beneficial. The theory is tested and confirmed by examining U.S. census data, which reveal that the likelihood that an immigrant will learn English is inversely related to the proportion of the local population that speaks his or her native language.

America is a country of many races and cultures, and with each passing year, more health care providers are recognizing the challenge of caring for patients from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Health care professionals and managers must have a basic understanding of the impact of language and culture on health care delivery in order to efficiently organize services that meet the needs of both the institution and a diverse patient population. According to Veronica, “Hawaiian was an oral language. The 19th century missionaries, however, were supposed to teach their converts to read the Bible, and created a writing system with an alphabet of only twelve letters for words of indigenous Hawaiian origin. The Hawaiian language became the language of the government, remained the most commonly used language in daily life, and was used between the numerous different ethnic groups who had all arrived here to work the plantations. The alphabets were later expanded to allow for two unique characteristics in the Hawaiian word that the missionaries had missed. (2008)”

Hawaiian remains the languages of the heart and soul. The languages sways like a palm tree in a gentle wind. Their words are as melodious as a love song. Hawaiian is a Polynesian language spoken throughout the inhabited Hawaiian Islands. In the nineteenth century it became a written language and was the language of the Hawaiian government and the people. With the subjugation of Hawaii under the rule of the United States in 1898, Hawaiian was supplanted and English became the official language. Hawaiian was a dying language. Fortunately, today it is experiencing a rebirth through courses of study and the Hawaiian people's general interest in their roots. In 1978, Hawaiian was re-established as an official language of the State of Hawaii and, in 1990, the federal Government of the United States adopted a policy to recognize the right of Hawaii to preserve, use, and support their indigenous language. Since 1970, "Olelo Hawaii", or the Hawaiian language, has undergone a tremendous revival, including the rise of language immersion schools. The cultural revitalization that Hawaiians are now experiencing and transmitting to their children is a reclamation of their own past (Alternative-Hawaii, 2002). 

In conclusion, many languages have been disappeared including Hawaiian. One of reasons is that some countries are trying to cross out languages of their colonies. Why wouldn’t they want to see the people who talk in their language in their colony? Because, the languages could affect economy activities, diplomacy, national defense as well as culture; and the culture can affect everything of people in a country. 


Work cited:
Veronica S. Schweitzer, Olelo Hawaii, Oct 1997, Coffee Times,
<http://www.coffeetimes.com/language.htm>
Ala Mua Hawaii 2002, Aug 2008, Alternative Hawaii,
<http://www.alternative-hawaii.com/hacul/language.htm>

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Alternative High School

Essay 2011. 8. 3. 20:44
Name: Seowon Jung
Class: ESL100
Date: 5/12/2008

Many experts, governors, and politicians are focusing on how they make the maladjusted students stay in school to study. One of their programs is the alternative high school. They expect that if parents send the maladjusted students to alternative high schools, they will study hard. Can it be so? Do this kinds of students really want to study? I don’t think that the reason they don’t study is that they don’t like their school or the present educational system. Therefore, I raise a question the effectiveness of alternative high school.

According to Gay, “At-risk students are described as discouraged learners, those who for whatever reason do not achieve in the standard high school program. Poor attendance, habitual truancy, academic lags,and teenage parenthood-these are the causes of what the federal definition specifies as school drop-outs, from 9th to 12th grade. Over 25% of American youth fit that description” (2000). The important thing is habitual truancy. The meaning of habitual truancy is that they don’t want to study and attend at school anymore. Nevertheless, if the parents send them to an alternative high school, do they study and attend there? The experts have to focus not on alternative schools, but on making them to study of their own accord.
If so, how do we make them study and attend school? Indeed, this is the experts’ duty. So regarding my opinion, studying and attending at school are positively necessaries for life of every person. Parents have to inform them that we are not primitive men, but intellectual men. We are not living in the jungle. To live in the city with many people without bother, we have to be educated, cultured, and grounded. In conclusion, before we can focus on alternative schools, we need to think how we make students study and attend school.
 


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Digital Divide

Essay 2011. 8. 3. 20:38
Name: Seowon Jung
Class: ESL100
Date: 5/11/2008

These day, most people have at least one or more digital devices like a cell phone. Young people usually have three or more devices. Cell phone, MP3 player, laptop computer have been necessary items even for older people. Adults, who need a lot of information for their job, can tell from something whether that is wrong or not. However, our children accept everything without distinguish, and they believe that their found is right before somebody says that is wrong. Children can look for everything they want to know from internet and every children might have same thoughts one another. Every children see same information on the internet. They have been losing their personality and originality. Therefore, we need to change educational system or way in order to get back originality and personality for our children.

A lot of school have purchased laptop and desktop computers to reduce gap between rich and poor children. The program of Kansas high school has definitely been successful and many school is tying to start a kind of program in order to make equal opportunity to an education. However, as a result, most children have same opinions and solution of questions. Now, the internet is not an ocean of information any more. It’s the cramming system of the cyber school. Indeed, we can not stop to develop and make digital devices because we can not live without these things anymore. Besides, it can not be solved that restricts within purchasing of children Therefore, experts have to suggest way that can revive their originality and personality with out remove the digital devices.

In the closed future, we will have devices more than now and children too. Reducing the gap between rich and poor people is still serious subject of many countries but, as reducing it, we need to accept the consequence of sode effect. In South Korea, there are many web site about homework database of student. Children don’t have to worry about their difficult homework. They an just copy solutions and correct answers. Now most Korean children have been losing their originality. I think, the future of our children is our mission for our better future and life.


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Name: Seowon Jung
Class: ESL100
Date: 5/11/2008

The world has changed. In the past, people studied at school with only pen and paper to prepare them to work in places like factories. These days, there are a lot of digital devices in the world and everybody has one of them, even children. Children have access to the internet and can search for any information they need. In the digital world, they have lost interest in study, homework, and social activities. Therefore, now teachers need to change their teaching style.

The videos advise teachers to try to use digital devices in order to make studying interesting for their students. The video tried to convince some old hat teachers that a lot of children use google and youtube at home. Children might be already learning what teachers don’t teach at school. Therefore, some children would think that homework is unuseful or useful in the far future. However, as teachers can engage their students with digital devices, it could make study interesting not only at school but also at home. In addition to, it can produce good results like reducing the dropping out rate.

However, children of low-income families, who don’t have computers nor any digital devices, can join those who have digital devices? Children from low- income families might not attend school to avoid showing that they are kind of poor people with open doors. On this point, a gap occurs between rich and poor children. Poor children don’t have computers at home so, they don’t know how to surf the web and search for information they need. Obviously, they avoid studying more and more, and they drop out from school. In the past, society was divided into three groups: king, nobilities and common people. These days, devices have divided children into two parts haves and have-nots and eventually, it results in the increase of the dropout rate before graduation.

Some school like Kansas high school has tried to reduce a gap between rich and poor students through free laptop program. I strongly agree that this program can bring very positive effect and reduce the dropout rate but, this program is not a complete solution. Someone has to spend a lot of money, which the government has been doing. However, what if the government buys an iPod for every poor children? Is it a perfect solution? Absolutely not. Because, nobody knows who is poor or not. Moreover, even the base line of poorness is neither one thing nor the other.

In conclusion, digital devices have helped to increase the dropout rate of students. I think it’s not household matters and, moreover, one person can not solve this problem. Therefore, the government nationally needs to try to solve this problem. For example, the government buys digital devices at lower prices then, they can give it to poor children, who are honor students, as a scholarship. Through this program, I believe that the student will compete and be stimulated by how many points they have to earn to get digital devices. Furthermore, this kind of scholarship has to be awarded to eligible students who must be poor children. 


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Innovative trends

Essay 2011. 8. 3. 20:33

Name: Seowon Jung
Class: ESL100
Date: 5/11/2008

A lot of high school in the U.S has tried to increase the rate of graduation for many years. One of the high school, Mapleton School near Denver, had a dropout rate of more than 50%. The superintendent for this school, whose name is Charlotte Ciancio, decided the entire student system needed a shakeup and school started to change after she came back there.

 

The Mapleton School needed innovative something and Charlotte knew that had to change. She has reorganized every school, creating 17 distinct programs. They are as different as schools can be. Besides, Welby New Tech, with 286 student has computers everywhere for their student, who want to learn on their own, in the building and classrooms are large to permit team teaching.
 

Even though Mapleton has tried to offer a broad menu of school experiences, its system is under the assumption that families will take advantage of the variety offered. Actually, the assumption is everywhere, which has been successful of innovative changes, by the executives level. Basically, instinct of human about power has no limit and there is a lot of people who want to take advantage as a friendship. The innovation has an effect on many students and their parents. However, if the superintendents lose their original intention or purpose, the result of their efforts will be burst like a bubble.

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Head Start

Essay 2011. 8. 3. 20:31
Name: Seowon Jung
Class: ESL100
Date: 5/11/2008


I. Introduction

In the past, the only way of success in life for the common people was studying hard and parents were busy taking care of their children. If their children entered a castle that the king lived in, they worked in a bureaucratic ministry as an officer with a lot of followers and eventually, many children as well as parents thought that success in life was working in the castle. For this reason, the parents were hard put to it and supported their children. However, everybody was not able to focus on studying and supporting. Some people, who had to work for their family to support as a breadwinner, had to give up studying or didn’t want their children to study something. In contrast, these days every child can be educated through high school without any charged tuition. Nevertheless, there are some children who are not able to go to school this day for the same reason as in the past.

For these reasons, the government of many countries have considered some program to help the children from low-income families. The U.S Department of Health and Human Services has put in operation a program that focuses on assisting children from low-income families. This program is called Head Start. Head Start is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965. Services provided to preschool-aged children include child development, educational, health, nutritional, social and other activities, intended to prepare low-income children to enter kindergarten. Overall, Head Start is already successful in giving poor children an advantage when they go to school. Besides, Head Start shows today that a Head Start program of the 1970s helped participating young children achieve greater school success and avoid crime as they grew up. Hawaii also has 125 programs of Head Start that offer a wide variety of services.

Now, Head Start is evaluated one of most successful program for children of low-income families in the US. Experts have studied long-term effects of it to prove that it has been successful program and they have found a positive impact on pre-reading skills, pre-writing skills, vocabularies knowledge, oral comprehension and phonological awareness; and early math skills; and the overall cognitive development of children. Research shows that Head Start has restricted the educational achievement gap between low and high-income children; increased high school graduation rates and reduced crime. Head Start serves only half of eligible 3 and 4 years old children. Increased investments in Head Start would make it even stronger by raising teacher qualifications, enhancing curriculum standards, expanding parent coaching, and introducing interventions for children with behavioral problems. The US should invest more in Head Start to save taxpayers’ money and save lives. Under the current law, funds for Head Start go directly from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to children from low-income families. President Bush has proposed to give states the option of controlling Head Start funds and combine the Head Start program with other pre- school programs. In order to obtain control of Head Start funds, states would have to present a plan that, among other requirements, shows how they would prepare poor children to succeed in the public schools. Despite its many successes, Head Start is getting wrapped in dark clouds.


II. Issues

Head Start has come under attack over the years. Several studies have indicated that initial gains made by Head Start children on intelligence tests are not sustained (Jacques, 2001). According to Krista (2004), "When you look at where Head Start has been in the last few years, they've been bending over backwards to avoid literacy skills.” Some of Head Start teachers guess wrong that young children are ready to learn preliteracy, premath and other school readiness skills even though the program is appropriate whether or no for young children due to lack of responsibility of the some of Head Start teachers. However, children, who are a little wanting some what weak in the head, begin to neglect studying and eventually, they are being contrary to teacher’s expectations. Moreover, the qualifications of its teaching staff are questionable and its long-term effects on the social and educational outcomes of participating children are unclear. Nevertheless, I strongly believe that Head Start is the most successful of the great society programs because the advantages of Head Start far outweigh the disadvantages.

An another issue is that while some politicians have set their sights on Head Start, a lot of children from low-income families still don’t have the benefit of a strong pre-school education experience. According to Helen, “Recorded by researchers and lived by families, Head Start's future is now uncertain as policy- makers debate a Bush-administration proposal that could effectively dismantle the cherished program. This debate badly misses the mark.”. Besides, Head Start teacher still earns roughly half the payment of a kindergarten teacher. On the other hand, the discussion in Washington focuses on moving the management of Head Start from the federal government to the states and restricting the services of program. Moreover, according to Isabel, “the effects of Head Start are not as clear. After nearly forty years of operation, there is not a national random-assignment evaluation of the long-term impacts of Head Start. (2003)”

Today, many families are eligible for several early-childhood programs like
child are, pre-K and Head Start. A lot of children are still not served due to the lack of funding. However, given these weak points, better coordination of the resources that we have is essential to help children get a strong early-learning experience and to help parents work. For example, if Head Start offers a full-day, over 8 hours, or flexible child care program, the program will be able to help working families to extend their working-hours. Besides, if teachers of Head Start establish a fund for them, new funding for Head Start teachers will be able to help them to compensate enough so that they stay with Head Start. Both child care and pre-school education are important. Child care is essential to enable both single and married mothers and fathers to work. Moreover, the reasons why pre-school education programs are important is that they help to prepare children from low-income families for school. Since 1960s, when President Lyndon B. johnson initiated the War on Poverty, a major goal of federal policy has been to improve the educational achievement of poor children. However, now almost forty years later, despite the expenditure of billions of dollars on programs for poor pre-school children, as a recent study of experts shows that the school readiness gap between poor and rich children exists (Isabel, 2003).


III. Impacts

Head Start was launched in 1965, serving over 560,000 children and families. American Indian and Alaska Native Head Start Programs also began in 1965 with 43 grantees in 14 states (GOPB, 2007).At first, Head Start was an eight- week summer program staffed by thousands of volunteers from across the nation. According to PHSA “Many summer programs became nine-month, half-day programs in the first few years, and Head Start moved to the Office of Child Development in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (These offices were later renamed the Administration on Children, Youth and Families within the Department of Health and Human Services.) An effort to move the program to the Department of Education was actively opposed by Head Start supporters in the 1970s and in 2004; both times the move failed.”

Head Start’s goal has been to boost the school readiness of low-income children. Based on a “whole child” model, the program provides comprehensive services that include preschool education; medical, dental, and mental health care; nutrition services; and efforts to help parents foster their child’s development (HHS, 2005). Many people have paid a lot of taxes and some of taxes have been used for Head Start. Therefore, many people including the President have wondered what has happened to children and their families so far. Experts and the government have found a positive impact on pre-reading skills, pre-writing skills, vocabulary knowledge, oral comprehension and phonological awareness, and early math skills and the overall cognitive development of children. Experts have studied the long-term impact of Head Start. A long-term study shows that a Head Start program of the 1970s helped participating young children achieve greater school success and avoid crime as they grew up. According to High Scope, “the study found evidence of important effects on school success and crime. For females at one study site after adjusting for background differences, only about one-fourth as many Head Start participants as non-participants (5% versus 19%) failed to obtain a high school or GED diploma, and only on-third as many (5% versus 15%) were arrested for crimes (High Scope, 2003).”

Head Start restricted the school readiness gap between low-income children and high-income children. A study with a nationally representative sample of 2800 children showed that Head Start significantly raised average scores of children’s performance (Zill,N.et al. 2003). Moreover, the largest gains were made by the lower-performing children, especially vocabulary test scores by the end of kindergarten. In addition to improved school readiness, Head Start graduates have also been shown to have lower crime rates as adults. In a large national survey, Head Start graduates were 8.5 percent less likely to be later arrested or charged with a crime than their siblings who attended other preschool program.

After careful review of major Head Start studies, early education experts have determined that the positive educational effects of Head Start are long lasting on a broad range of real-world outcomes like high school graduation, grade retention, and special education placement (Barnett,W.S, 2002). Some studies of Head Start initially suggested that the program’s effect on school achievement faded out over time, but these early studies were defective.

According to Campbell,S.B (2000), “60 percent of young children with elevated levels of aggressive behaviors will manifest high levels of anti-social and delinquent.” Head Start addresses this problem by giving services to help the social, emotional and behavior development of children. For example, some program, which is called The Incredible Years program, provided by Head Start centers trains parent, teachers and family to be strengthen problem-solving skills and non-aggressive social skills in children. In The Incredible Years program 96 percent showed a substantial reduction in aggressive behavior compared to 56 percent of children in The Incredible Years Program (Hammond,M.2001).

Early Head Start is a proven program that extends the benefits of Head Start to children under three. Families assigned to receive the combined center visit approach were 62 percent more likely to read to their children daily than families who didn’t receive the program.


IV. Conclusion

Despite a proverb “The poverty is incurable beyond cure.”, I strongly believe that Head Start is the most one of successful program in the U.S for low-income families. In case of my country, although politicians would make many programs and welfare policies, getting benefits from its program is not easy for every real poor people. Because, programs from politicians are usually not unrealizable for real poor people in actuality. Moreover, middle-class Koreans want to be qualified and benefited from many programs for poor people even though they are not poor. As a result, rich people become even more rich, poor people become even more poor. Indeed, despite born poor, they can overcome their poverty through industry and thrift but, there is nothing so hard to bear as poverty. I think that this point is cause that people give up an education of their children.

However, in my opinion, we have missed an important point. Experts have studied short-term and long-term effect regarding how many points they can earn. What I’m concerned is long-term effect regarding sentiment caused discrimination of the gap between rich and poor among the children at school. If rich children see some children at the class of Head Start, poor children can be exposed to the ridicule of the public because they are poor. We have heard the saying: “Poverty is no sin.” However, these day, it’s wrong. Poverty is the mother of crime.

Indeed, I don’t think that Head Start is not a direct solution to reduce the gap between rich and poor. It’s just an one of educational program for children. The qualified children is merely different from ordinary families. Therefore, if Head Start has been a program for poor children, we have to make an another program for rich children to change their understanding Head Start program. Also Head Start can not solve the problem of a desire to possess digital devices. I think that this problem is eternal question that the democratic government have to solve it.

In conclusion, Head Start have definitely reduce the gap between rich and poor; and there has been a controversy on it. However, I think we don’t have to worry about it. Because clouds always follow the sunshine and I expect that a kind of this controversy will improve a quality of Head Start. Eventually, Head Start will be a model of welfare policies for many developing countries.


References
Steinberg, J. (2001). Language Enrichment Activities Program. Retrieved Feb. 25,
2008, from http://www.leapsandbounds.org/bushplan.htm
Kafer, K. (2004). A Head Start for Poor Children? Retrieved Feb. 25, 2008, From
http://www.heritage.org/Research/Education/bg1755.cfm
GOPB, Great Opportunities of the Permian Basin. (2007). Head Start History
Retrieved. , , from http://www.gopb.org/History.htm
Oden, S. (2003). Long-Term Benefits. Retrieved Feb. 25, 2008, from
http://www.highscope.org/Content.asp?ContentId=260
Helen, Blank. (2004). Head Start under assault
The flaws in the administration’s misguided plan(Early Childhood).
Boston, MA: The American Prospect.
Isabel, V. Sawhill. (2003). The future of Head Start.
The Nation’s Dual System of Child Care and Preschool Education.
Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.


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Name: Seowon Jung
Class: ESL100
Date: 5/12/2008

One of famous entertainer got married to another entertainer last year in Korea. Their wedding ceremony became a topic of conversation because the bride was a transgender and the reaction of the masses ran to extremes. She, who was a male, getting married to a real man was unacceptable for Korean people and against popular sentiment. However, transgender: gay, lesbian and bisexual are not unfamiliar words anymore. Therefore, we are going to have to be concerned about them.

The National Education Association (NEA) adopted a resolution to start to respect diversity of student and support equal opportunity for student and staff regardless of sexual orientation. They not have only rights to an education with ordinary people but also have human rights. Homosexual love has been a topic of contempt and taboo in most countries but, a couple of countries accept it. However, St. Paul criticized homosexuality in the Bible because, homosexuality is an avaricious sex act unconcerned with the propagation of a race. Therefore, homosexual love was treated as a sin or criminal act against of the Commandment and society. I strongly believe that the homosexual love is kind of an antisocial action. Because I think that homosexuality is the result of a home environment and education from their parents. For example, suppose someone wanted to have a daughter but, his wife bore a boy. To comfort himself for not having a daughter, he will bring up his son as if he is a girl. If so, his son will think that he is basically a woman in the body of a man.

Regardless of my views, the National Education Association believes that every school district should provide counseling by trained personnel for students who are struggling with their sexual/gender orientation. Indeed, I agree counseling is a positive direction because counseling can reduce prejudice and discrimination between LGBT people and non-LGBT people. Eventually, they will be close to each other slowly. The most important thing is what we need are concern and encouragement regarding the LGBT people.

As I have mentioned, the LGBT people are the result of the influences of their parents. Some people advocates that their sex was switched before they were born, but I believe that character, personality, and sex-identification are acquired. Therefore, we have to enlighten the parents not to make their children gay. For example, if their sons and daughters have a propensity to be a girlish and boyish, the parents can reform them to think that they are the opposite sex.

However, for the rest of the people, who are unenlightened LGBT people, we have to take care of them. In my opinion, educator can make and operate special classrooms for only LGBT people such as coeducation classrooms. They could be happy or feel relieved feeling in that classrooms among the LGBT people. In conclusion, antisocial action is a kind of social phenomenon. Now, we should accept this social phenomenon and be ready for diversity of human identification. 


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Single-Sex Education

Essay 2011. 8. 3. 20:23
Name: Seowon Jung
Class: ESL100
Date: 5/12/2008

North-Eastern Asian countries have been affected by Confucian ideas. In South Korea, there is a sentence so far that when boys and girls become 7 years old, they can’t sit together. Moreover, approximately 500 years ago, women were not able to show any portion their skin except her face, hands, and feet. So, there are a lot of single-sex middle and high schools in S.Korea and Koreans are familiar attending single-sex schools, meetings, and military service. Someone, who wants to meet and talk to the opposite sex, would attend church. In contrast, western civilization has been magnanimous to sex and the educational experts have started to raise a question regarding the effects of this magnanimity.

According to The Australian Council for Educational Research, both boys and girls who were educated in single-sex classrooms scored on average 15 to 22 percentile ranks higher than did boys and girls in coeducational settings (2000). As boys and girls are in single-sex classrooms, they lose interest in the opposite sex and concentrate on studying and their duties. For example, many high school students in S.Korea study hard in order to meet the opposite sex because, almost all of the universities are coeducational.

Moreover, the sex crime rate can also be reduced through single-sex classroom because, while they are at school, people who they meet are all the same sex. Thus, they will lose interest in the opposite sex.

However, boys and girls in their adolescence can have some problem that we wouldn’t expect. By separating genders in school, the adult might be able to think that students will not cause some sexual incidents, but I think that they would have a greater interest in the opposite sex than a reductionist interest in the opposite sex due to curiosity. Moreover, they might have misinformation about the opposite sex. Indeed, through sex education in school, teachers can prevent sexual incidents of students but, if teachers try to restrict students desires more and more, students will have more curiosity.

These days, the experts are studying only about how the students can make higher test scores than before. Of course, young people are our hope and future of our countries. However, before we worry about how many more points they can earn, we have to make them become decent people. The percentage of low-educated people who are criminals is higher than highly educated people but, the highly educated people can be criminals, too. Therefore, the government decides to separate students from a coeducational system, the politician have to consider what the effects of single-sex education. As I mentioned, young people are the pillar of the state. 


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